# Correlations are used to generate validity evidence

## Concurrent, predictive, convergent, and divergent validity

__play a central role in applied__

**Correlations****.**

__psychometrics__The inter-correlations among survey instrument items play a role in calculating

__coefficients (Cronbach's alpha, split-half, KR-20),__

**internal consistency reliability****(Spearman-Brown formula), and**

__test-retest reliability____(Kappa, ICC). Correlation matrices also play a significant role in__

**inter-rater reliability**__(eigenvalues, factor loadings).__

**principal components analysis**Correlations are used to generate

**c**

**o**__,__

**nvergent**__, and__

**predictive****validity evidence. Significant correlations with**

__concurrent__**theoretically or conceptually similar**constructs/survey instruments denotes evidence of validity. In social sciences, a validity coefficient (or correlation coefficient) of

**.3**is considered evidence of validity.

__and__

**Pearson's r**__are the most prevalent correlation tests used to generate validity evidence. These correlations are used with survey instruments that generate__

**Spearman's rho****ordinal or continuous outcomes**.