The "O" in PICO represents the outcome being studied
Choosing a credible and valid outcome increases the ease of generalizability and applicability of clinical evidence in other environments. If at all possible, researchers should select a continuous outcome to improve upon the precision and accuracy of treatment effects. Continuous outcomes also allows for researchers to use more powerful parametric statistics.
The outcome variable also plays a central role in creating research hypotheses, choosing the correct research design, conducting a priori sample size calculations, structuring databases, and choosing the correct statistical analyses.
Outcomes can be categorical, ordinal, or continuous. The scale of measurement of the outcome is central to choosing the correct statistical test.
Statistician Services for Professionals
Eric Heidel, Ph.D. will provide the following services for researchers, professionals, and organizations at $100/hour. Secure checkout is available with Stripe or PayPal.
- Statistical Analysis
- Research Design
- Sample Size Calculations
- Diagnostic Testing and Epidemiological Calculations
- Survey Design and Psychometrics
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