Independence of observations
Independence of observations means each participant is only counted as one observation
Statistical designs and independence of observations
In within-subjects designs, the participants are independent of each other and there are several observations of the outcome "within" each person or across time.
Multivariate analyses that account for demographic, etiological, prognostic, confounding, or clinical variables cannot meet the statistical assumptions of normality and linearity if there are multiple observations of the same participant in a sample. This is especially true if the aforementioned variables are measured at a categorical level.
There is no statistical test associated with testing independence of observations. It is up to you, as the researcher, to meet this assumption by counting each participant in your study as one independent observation.
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