Study participants are randomly assigned to equally sized treatment groups
After random assignment, the equally sized treatment groups should be compared on baseline characteristics. If there are significant differences between the groups (due completely to chance with the use of randomization), then multivariate statistics should be used to adjust for these differences. It is very important in experimental research designs to have comparable or adjusted groups.
When randomized groups are equal in terms of baseline characteristics, the experiment possesses equipoise, or equal and comparable groups. Simple randomization further accounts for confounding or both measured and unmeasured variables. If there are no significant differences between the treatment groups on important demographic, clinical, prognostic, then the groups can be directly compared on treatment outcomes and casual effects can be yielded from the experimental research design.
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